Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and is responsible for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. In Iran, cancer is considered the second largest group of chronic non-communicable diseases and the third most common cause of death after heart disease, accidents and other natural phenomena. The total incidence of cancer in Iran has been estimated about 19.4 and 17.2 per hundred thousand of people in males and females respectively. It is evident that rates of cancer in Iran continue to rise globally and regionally due to unhealthy lifestyles and low quality cancer care, especially in developing countries. The WHO estimated the Eastern Mediterranean will have the highest relative increase of all regions in the world.